Find it at other libraries via WorldCat Limited preview. Bibliography Includes bibliographical references and index. Contents I. Overview of the Biosocial Approach 1. Introduction to Biosocial Criminology 2. Criminal Behavior from Heritability to Epigenetics 3. Molecular Genetics and Crime 4.
The Ghost in the 5. Evolutionary Psychology and Crime II. Applications to Important Correlates of Crime 6.
Gender and Crime: An Evolutionary Perspective 7. Race 8. Substance Abuse and Crime: Biosocial Foundations Serious Violent Criminals Furthermore, competition over females is argued to have been particularly intensive in late adolescence and young adulthood, which is theorized to explain why crime rates are particularly high during this period. The "evolutionary neuroandrogenic theory" focuses on the hormone testosterone as a factor influencing aggression and criminality and being beneficial during certain forms of competition.
Castration of males usually has a pacifying effect on aggressive behavior in males. The involvement in crime usually rises in the early teens to mid teens in correlation with the rise of testosterone levels.
Research on the relationship between testosterone and aggression is difficult since the only reliable measurement of brain testosterone is by lumbar puncture , which is not done for research purposes. Studies therefore have often instead used less reliable measurements from blood or saliva. Some studies support a link between adult criminality and testosterone, although the relationship is modest if examined separately for each sex. A significant link between juvenile delinquency and testosterone levels has not been established.
Biosocial Criminology - New Directions in Theory and Research (Hardcover)
Some studies have also found testosterone to be associated with behaviors or personality traits linked with criminality such as antisocial behavior and alcoholism. About half the studies have found a relationship and about half no relationship. Many conflicts causing homicides involve status conflicts, protecting reputation, and seemingly trivial insults. Therefore, it was important to have a reputation for retaliation, causing humans to develop instincts for revenge as well as for protecting reputation " honor ".
Pinker argues that the development of the state and the police have dramatically reduced the level of violence compared to the ancestral environment. Whenever the state breaks down, which can be very locally such as in poor areas of a city, humans again organize in groups for protection and aggression and concepts such as violent revenge and protecting honor again become extremely important.
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Some cultures place greater emphasis on protecting honor than other cultures. One explanation is that protecting honor was in the ancestral past relatively more important for herders than for farmers.
The livestock of herders were easily and quickly stolen. As a result, it was important to constantly show toughness as a deterrence, which may cause a higher level of violence. The predictions of the theory was confirmed in a cross-cultural examination of traditional farming and herding Spanish-American societies. However, the prediction that sedentary fishing societies would place a low emphasis on honor was not confirmed. The degree of cultural collectivism is strongly associated with the burden of infectious disease. It has been argued that this is due to collectivism and associated characteristics such as out-group avoidance limiting the spread of infectious diseases.
Other characteristics such as strong in-group—out-group bias and willingness to defend the ingroup 's honor may promote violence. A study found strong associations between several forms of violent criminal behavior and both infectious disease rates across U.
S states and degree of cultural collectivism across U. The associations remained strong after controlling for income inequality. Evolutionary psychology researchers have proposed several evolutionary explanations for psychopathy.
Biosocial Criminology: New Directions in Theory and Research / Edition 1
One is that psychopathy represents a frequency-dependent, socially parasitic strategy. This may benefit the psychopath as long as there are few other psychopaths in the community since more psychopaths means increasing the risk of encountering another psychopath as well as non-psychopaths likely adapting more countermeasures against cheaters.
Sociobiological theories of rape are theories that explore to what degree, if any, evolutionary adaptations influence the psychology of rapists. Such theories are highly controversial, as traditional theories typically do not consider rape to be a behavioral adaptation. Some object to such theories on ethical, religious, political, as well as scientific grounds.
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Others argue that a correct knowledge of the causes of rape is necessary in order to develop effective preventive measures. The Cinderella effect is the alleged higher rate of stepchildren being abused by stepparents as compared to genetic parents, observed in some, but not all, studies. An explanation of this affect has been attempted by application of evolutionary psychology theories.
There have also been various criticisms of these theories. Infanticide is one of the few forms of violence more often done by women than men. Cross-cultural research has found that this is more likely to occur when the child has deformities or illnesses as well as when there are lacking resources due to factors such as poverty, other children requiring resources, and no male support. Such a child may have a low chance of reproductive success, in which case it would decrease the mother's inclusive fitness to spend resources on the child, in particular since women generally have a greater parental investment than men.
Punishment of exploitative behaviors harmful to the group was likely a recurring problem in the ancestral environment. As such humans are argued to have developed a range of psychological mechanisms for handling this. Punishment can be a deterrent to undesired behaviors but excessive punishment can also be harmful to the group.
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Thus, human are argued to favor a proportional response based on how severe the offence is. Cross-cultural research have a found a high agreement regarding how relatively harmful different crimes are perceived to be. On the other hand, evolutionary novel factors that may be rational to consider from a deterrent perspective, such as how difficult it is for the modern police to detect the crime, do not seem to affect people's perceptions of appropriate punishments. Once a crime's severity has been judged, there is a choice regarding how to respond. Internships Learn about internships and field work.
Find Your Advisor. Advising Find Your Advisor. Contact our office. Contact Us Contact our office. In , the Department of Criminal Justice Administration became a separate department. Student majors increased from about 25 in to over in the early and mids. The faculty of the Department of Criminal Justice are engaged in a variety of community activities and contributions including: Survey of the Prosecution of Child Sex Abuse in Idaho.